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The factory solenoid has been discontinued. Pots Of Luck Casino Welcome bonus. Our scan tools display when using the factory maf and conventional chip Extender chips will read higher. The Betfair Internet casino offers a 2. Research into how birds fly has yielded various theories as to the evolution of bird flight, a topic that is still hotly debated among scholars.

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Take-off is one of the most energetically demanding aspects of flight, as the bird must generate enough airflow across the wing to create lift. Small birds do this with a simple upward jump. That doesn't work for larger birds, which must take a run up to generate sufficient airflow. Large birds take off by facing into the wind, or, if they can, by perching on a branch or cliff so they can just drop off into the air. Landing is also a problem for large birds with high wing loads.

This problem is dealt with in some species by aiming for a point below the intended landing area such as a nest on a cliff then pulling up beforehand.

If timed correctly, the airspeed once the target is reached is virtually nil. Landing on water is simpler, and the larger waterfowl species prefer to do so whenever possible, landing into wind and using their feet as skids. To lose height rapidly prior to landing, some large birds such as geese indulge in a rapid alternating series of sideslips or even briefly turning upside down in a maneuver termed as whiffling. A wide variety of birds fly together in a symmetric V-shaped or a J-shaped coordinated formation, also referred to as an "echelon", especially during long distance flight or migration.

It is often assumed that birds resort to this pattern of formation flying in order to save energy and improve the aerodynamic efficiency. The wingtips of the leading bird in an echelon create a pair of opposite rotating line vortices. The vortices trailing a bird have an underwash part behind the bird, and at the same time they have an upwash on the outside, that hypothetically could aid the flight of a trailing bird.

Studies of waldrapp ibis show that birds spatially coordinate the phase of wing flapping and show wingtip path coherence when flying in V positions, thus enabling them to maximally utilise the available energy of upwash over the entire flap cycle. In contrast, birds flying in a stream immediately behind another do not have wingtip coherence in their flight pattern and their flapping is out of phase, as compared to birds flying in V patterns, so as to avoid the detrimental effects of the downwash due to the leading bird's flight.

The most obvious adaptation to flight is the wing, but because flight is so energetically demanding birds have evolved several other adaptations to improve efficiency when flying. Birds' bodies are streamlined to help overcome air-resistance. Also, the bird skeleton is hollow to reduce weight, and many unnecessary bones have been lost such as the bony tail of the early bird Archaeopteryx , along with the toothed jaw of early birds, which has been replaced with a lightweight beak.

The skeleton's breastbone has also adapted into a large keel, suitable for the attachment of large, powerful flight muscles. The vanes of each feather have hooklets called barbules that zip the vanes of individual feathers together, giving the feathers the strength needed to hold the airfoil these are often lost in flightless birds.

The barbules maintain the shape and function of the feather. Each feather has a major greater side and a minor lesser side, meaning that the shaft or rachis does not run down the center of the feather.

Rather it runs longitudinally of center with the lesser or minor side to the front and the greater or major side to the rear of the feather. This feather anatomy, during flight and flapping of the wings, causes a rotation of the feather in its follicle. The rotation occurs in the up motion of the wing. The greater side points down, letting air slip through the wing.

This essentially breaks the integrity of the wing, allowing for a much easier movement in the up direction. The integrity of the wing is reestablished in the down movement, which allows for part of the lift inherent in bird wings. This function is most important in taking off or achieving lift at very low or slow speeds where the bird is reaching up and grabbing air and pulling itself up.

At high speeds the air foil function of the wing provides most of the lift needed to stay in flight. The large amounts of energy required for flight have led to the evolution of a unidirectional pulmonary system to provide the large quantities of oxygen required for their high respiratory rates.

This high metabolic rate produces large quantities of radicals in the cells that can damage DNA and lead to tumours. Birds, however, do not suffer from an otherwise expected shortened lifespan as their cells have evolved a more efficient antioxidant system than those found in other animals. Most paleontologists agree that birds evolved from small theropod dinosaurs , but the origin of bird flight is one of the oldest and most hotly contested debates in paleontology.

There has also been debate about whether the earliest known bird, Archaeopteryx , could fly. It appears that Archaeopteryx had the brain structures and inner-ear balance sensors that birds use to control their flight.

But Archaeopteryx lacked the shoulder mechanism by which modern birds' wings produce swift, powerful upstrokes; this may mean that it and other early birds were incapable of flapping flight and could only glide. In March , scientists reported that Archaeopteryx was likely capable of flight, but in a manner substantially different from that of modern birds. This was the earliest hypothesis, encouraged by the examples of gliding vertebrates such as flying squirrels.

It suggests that proto-birds like Archaeopteryx used their claws to clamber up trees and glided off from the tops. Some recent research undermines the "trees down" hypothesis by suggesting that the earliest birds and their immediate ancestors did not climb trees. Modern birds that forage in trees have much more curved toe-claws than those that forage on the ground.

The toe-claws of Mesozoic birds and of closely related non-avian theropod dinosaurs are like those of modern ground-foraging birds. Feathers are very common in coelurosaurid dinosaurs including the early tyrannosauroid Dilong. The most common version of the "from the ground up" hypothesis argues that bird's ancestors were small ground-running predators rather like roadrunners that used their forelimbs for balance while pursuing prey and that the forelimbs and feathers later evolved in ways that provided gliding and then powered flight.

Most recent attacks on the "from the ground up" hypothesis attempt to refute its assumption that birds are modified coelurosaurid dinosaurs. The strongest attacks are based on embryological analyses , which conclude that birds' wings are formed from digits 2, 3 and 4 corresponding to the index, middle and ring fingers in humans; the first of a bird's 3 digits forms the alula , which they use to avoid stalling on low-speed flight, for example when landing ; but the hands of coelurosaurs are formed by digits 1, 2 and 3 thumb and first 2 fingers in humans.

The wing-assisted incline running WAIR hypothesis was prompted by observation of young chukar chicks, and proposes that wings developed their aerodynamic functions as a result of the need to run quickly up very steep slopes such as tree trunks, for example to escape from predators. Note that in this scenario birds need downforce to give their feet increased grip.

The proavis theory was first proposed by Garner, Taylor, and Thomas in We propose that birds evolved from predators that specialized in ambush from elevated sites, using their raptorial hindlimbs in a leaping attack.

Drag—based, and later lift-based, mechanisms evolved under selection for improved control of body position and locomotion during the aerial part of the attack.

Selection for enhanced lift-based control led to improved lift coefficients, incidentally turning a pounce into a swoop as lift production increased. Selection for greater swooping range would finally lead to the origin of true flight.

Birds use flight to obtain prey on the wing, for foraging , to commute to feeding grounds, and to migrate between the seasons. It is also used by some species to display during the breeding season and to reach safe isolated places for nesting. Flight is more energetically expensive in larger birds, and many of the largest species fly by soaring and gliding without flapping their wings as much as possible.

Many physiological adaptations have evolved that make flight more efficient. Birds that settle on isolated oceanic islands that lack ground-based predators often lose the ability to fly. This illustrates both flight's importance in avoiding predators and its extreme demand for energy. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards.

The specific problem is: September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Origin of avian flight. Unfixed gears and body lift". Journal of Experimental Biology. The Journal of Experimental Biology. Hearn and Douglas R. Warrick, "Aerodynamics of intermittent bounds in flying birds" , Exp.

Fluids , 46, pp. Journal of Theoretical Biology. Retrieved 31 March — via YouTube. Retrieved 31 March Retrieved 16 Jan Archaeopteryx and the Evolution of Bird Flight". Book review that provides a good, non-technical summary of the issues. The book is Shipman, P. Archaeopteryx and the Evolution of Bird Flight. Retrieved 31 March — via ResearchGate. Retrieved 13 March Explicit use of et al. The Origin and Evolution of Birds. See also Feduccia, A. The Quarterly Review of Biology. The molecular evidence" abstract.

Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution. Archived from the original PDF on 27 July Summarized in Morelle, Rebecca 24 January Scientists believe they could be a step closer to solving the mystery of how the first birds took to the air. Retrieved 25 January Origin of birds Origin of flight Evolution of birds Darwin's finches Seabirds.

Only use one hand when handling the dice. If you use two hands they fear you may be switching dice and will force you to re-select from new dice. Throw the dice to the opposite end of the table. The dice must hit the end wall and bounce back in order to be a valid roll. Also, you must have a Pass Line bet down in order to shoot.

Craps offers players some of the best odds in the house. The Pass Line bet only has a house edge of 1. If you put down "double odds" which you can learn about on the Intermediate page with your Pass Line bet the house's edge drops to. Compare that to the house edge of 5. This all may seem like a lot to digest all at once but once you go through a couple series you'll find it's really easy.

A couple things that can help are the free lessons offered by some of the casinos at their actual craps tables ask a casino employee if and when they offer free craps lessons and the Hoyle Casino software mentioned on the Gaming page. But be sure to read through our Intermediate Craps Play and Advanced Craps Play pages first so that you can make the most of the casino's lessons and practice software. All three pages are also summarized on a Craps Play Summary page that you can print out and take with you for easy reference or as a refresher.

When you're visiting a land based casino, you will often hear loud cheering and excitement from the craps tables. Craps translates surprisingly well online, considering the fact that you lose the social aspect of the game. It's a great way to play due to the fact that you can roll more turns and play more games.

Make sure the shooter is not about to throw the dice and put your money down on the table in front of the dealer and ask for "nickels" If the current shooter has a point established look for the buck white-side-up on a number wait for the series to end by the shooter either making their point or rolling a 7 Put your bet down on the Pass Line in front of you On the come-out roll; 7,11 wins; 2,3,12 loses; 4,5,6,8,9,10 are points If a point is established; point number before 7 wins; 7 before point number loses.

The basic bet in craps is the Pass Line bet: The bet chips is placed on the area of the layout marked "Pass Line" see the diagram below. The Pass Line bet is a series bet, meaning that the person shooting the dice aka "the shooter" may have to roll the dice multiple times before you win or lose. The first roll in a series is called the come-out roll and it is different from the rest of the rolls in the series. On the Come-Out Roll: This is essentially a one-roll series. This also is essentially a one-roll series.

Any other number rolled 4,5,6,8,9,10 becomes the shooter's point and the series continues. When the series continues If any number other than the point or a 7 is rolled, nothing happens and the shooter rolls again. If the point is rolled, Pass Line bets win and the series ends. If a 7 is rolled, Pass Line bets lose known as a "seven out" and the series ends.

This is the most confusing thing to new craps players. Note that rolling a 7 after a point is established is a loser, which is opposite of the 7 being a winner on a come-out roll. Remember this key point and you're a craps player!

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